When S.B. 153 was signed into law on June 30, 2021, Missouri became the final state with a sales tax to adopt an economic nexus law for remote sales tax collections, requiring remote sellers and marketplace facilitators with more than $100,000 in annual sales into Missouri to collect Missouri’s state and local sales taxes starting January 1, 2023. This new law will result in increased sales tax collections in the future, so instead of pocketing the extra revenue, policymakers decided to use their windfall to reduce individual income taxes.
Under S.B. 509, adopted in 2014, tax triggers are currently in place to reduce the top individual income tax rate by one-tenth of 1 percent per year, subject to revenue availability, for a total of five reductions. S.B. 153 builds upon these reforms by allowing two additional reductions, also subject to revenue triggers. While S.B. 509 specified that no reduction would occur in 2024, the new law provides that the top rate will be reduced by 0.1 percent, with no triggers necessary.
If revenue triggers are met each year, Missouri’s individual income tax rates would be reduced as shown in Table 7. While Missouri was late to adopt a sales tax nexus law, policymakers were prudent to take the step—largely disregarded in other states—of using the revenue to reduce taxes elsewhere.
|Missouri’s Projected Top Rate under S.B. 509 (2014) and S.B. 153 (2021) (Subject to Revenue Triggers)|
|Tax Year||Top Rate|
Note: Assumes years revenue triggers will be met in line with state projections. Inflation-adjusted bracket widths for 2021 were not available as of publication, so table reflects 2020 inflation-adjusted bracket widths.
Source: Missouri Committee on Legislative Research Oversight Division.
For more information on tax reforms: https://taxfoundation.org/2021-state-income-tax-cuts/#Missouri
The first tax-filing season under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was a time of uncertainty for many businesses as they struggled with the implications of the law’s sweeping changes for their bottom lines. With the next filing season on the horizon, you can incorporate the lessons learned into your year-end tax planning. Several areas in particular are ripe with opportunities to reduce your 2019 federal tax liability.
The creation of the qualified business income (QBI) deduction for pass-through entities, paired with the reduction of the corporate tax rate to a flat 21% rate from a top rate of 35%, make it worthwhile to re-evaluate whether your current entity type is the most tax-favorable.
Pass-through entities, including sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporations, traditionally have been seen as a way to avoid the double taxation C corporations are subject to at the entity and dividend levels. Pass-through entities are taxed only once, at an individual tax rate, but that rate can be as high as 37%. If they qualify for the full 20% QBI deduction — not always a sure thing (see below) — their effective tax rate is about 30%.
The deduction for state and local taxes also plays a role in the entity choice. The TCJA limits the amount of the deduction for individual pass-through entity owners, but not for corporations.
Bear in mind, too, that the reduced corporate tax rate is permanent (or as permanent as any tax cut can be), while the QBI deduction is slated to end after 2025. Ultimately, your business’s individual circumstances will determine the optimal structure.
The QBI deduction
Pass-through entities can take several steps before December 31 to maximize their QBI deduction. The deduction is subject to phased-in limitations based on W-2 wages paid (including many employee benefits), the unadjusted basis of qualified property and taxable income. You could boost your deduction, therefore, by increasing wages (for example, by hiring new employees, giving raises or making independent contractors employees). To increase your adjusted basis, you can invest in qualified property by year end.
If the W-2 wages limitation doesn’t limit the QBI deduction, S corporation owners can increase their QBI deductions by reducing the amount of wages the business pays them. (This tactic won’t work for sole proprietorships or partnerships, because they don’t pay their owners salaries.) On the other hand, if the W-2 wages limitation limits the deduction, they might be able to take a greater deduction by increasing their wages.
Some of the most popular tax credits for businesses survived the tax overhaul, including the Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC), the Small Business Health Care tax credit, the New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) and the research credit (also referred to as the “research and development,” “R&D” or “research and experimentation” credit). Smaller businesses may qualify for a credit for starting new retirement plans.
The WOTC, generally worth a maximum of $2,400 per employee (although for certain employees that can increase to $9,600), is currently scheduled to expire on December 31, so make those qualified hires before year end. The NMTC — 39% over seven years — also is set to expire at year end.
Capital asset investments
Purchasing equipment and other qualified capital assets has been a valuable tool for reducing taxable income for years, but the TCJA further greased the wheels by expanding bonus depreciation and Section 179 expensing (that is, deducting the entire cost in the current tax year).
For qualified property purchased after September 27, 2017, and before January 1, 2023, you can deduct the entire cost of new and used (subject to certain conditions) qualified property in the year the property is placed in service. Special rules apply to property with a longer production period.
Eligible property includes computer systems, computer software, vehicles, machinery, equipment and office furniture. Starting in 2023, the amount of the deduction will drop 20% each year going forward, disappearing altogether in 2027, absent congressional action.
Congress has thus far failed to take action to correct a drafting error in the TCJA that leaves qualified improvement property (generally interior improvements to nonresidential real property) ineligible for bonus deprecation.
Qualified improvement property is, however, eligible for Sec. 179 expensing. The TCJA makes this expensing available to several improvements to nonresidential real property, including roofs, HVAC, fire protection systems, alarm systems and security systems. It also increases the maximum deduction for qualifying property: For 2019, the limit is $1.02 million. (The maximum deduction is limited to the amount of income from business activity.) The expensing deduction begins phasing out on a dollar-for-dollar basis when qualifying property placed in service this year exceeds $2.55 million.
Deferring income / accelerating expenses
This technique has long been employed by businesses that don’t expect to be in a higher tax bracket the following year. If you use cash-basis accounting, for example, you might defer income into 2020 by sending your December invoices toward the end of the month. (Note that the TCJA now allows businesses with three-year average annual gross receipts of $25 million or less to use cash-basis accounting.) If your accounting is done on an accrual basis, you could delay delivery of goods and services until January.
Any business can accelerate deductible expenses into 2019 by putting them on a credit card in late December and paying it off in 2020 (subject to limitations). And cash-basis businesses can prepay bills due in January, as well as certain other expenses. Some caveats now apply to this approach. First, it could affect the amount of the QBI deduction for pass-through entities. It might make more sense to maximize the deduction while it’s still around — the deduction currently is scheduled to sunset after 2025 and, depending on the results of the 2020 elections, could be eliminated before then. Moreover, this tactic isn’t advisable if you’re likely to face higher tax rates in the future.
You still have time to make a significant dent in your business’s federal tax liability for 2019. We can help you chart the best course forward to minimize your tax bill and put you on solid ground for upcoming tax years.
When President Trump signed into law the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) in December 2017, much was made of the dramatic cut in corporate tax rates. But the TCJA also includes a generous deduction for smaller businesses that operate as pass-through entities, with income that is “passed through” to owners and taxed as individual income.
The IRS issued proposed regulations for the qualified business income (QBI), or Section 199A, deduction in August 2018. Now, it has released final regulations and additional guidance, just before the first tax season in which taxpayers can claim the deduction. Among other things, the guidance provides clarity on who qualifies for the QBI deduction and how to calculate the deduction amount.
QBI deduction in action
The QBI deduction generally allows partnerships, limited liability companies, S corporations and sole proprietorships to deduct up to 20% of QBI received. QBI is the net amount of income, gains, deductions and losses (excluding reasonable compensation, certain investment items and payments to partners) for services rendered. The calculation is performed for each qualified business and aggregated. (If the net amount is below zero, it’s treated as a loss for the following year, reducing that year’s QBI deduction.)
If a taxpayer’s taxable income exceeds $157,500 for single filers or $315,000 for joint filers, a wage limit begins phasing in. Under the limit, the deduction can’t exceed the greater of 1) 50% of the business’s W-2 wages or 2) 25% of the W-2 wages plus 2.5% of the unadjusted basis immediately after acquisition (UBIA) of qualified business property (QBP).
For a partnership or S corporation, each partner or shareholder is treated as having paid W-2 wages for the tax year in an amount equal to his or her allocable share of the W-2 wages paid by the entity for the tax year. The UBIA of qualified property generally is the purchase price of tangible depreciable property held at the end of the tax year.
The application of the limit is phased in for individuals with taxable income exceeding the threshold amount, over the next $100,000 of taxable income for married individuals filing jointly or the next $50,000 for single filers. The limit phases in completely when taxable income exceeds $415,000 for joint filers and $207,500 for single filers.
The amount of the deduction generally can’t exceed 20% of the taxable income less any net capital gains. So, for example, let’s say a married couple owns a business. If their QBI with no net capital gains is $400,000 and their taxable income is $300,000, the deduction is limited to 20% of $300,000, or $60,000.
The QBI deduction is further limited for specified service trades or businesses (SSTBs). SSTBs include, among others, businesses involving law, financial, health, brokerage and consulting services, as well as any business (other than engineering and architecture) where the principal asset is the reputation or skill of an employee or owner. The QBI deduction for SSTBs begins to phase in at $315,000 in taxable income for married taxpayers filing jointly and $157,500 for single filers, and phasing in completely at $415,000 and $207,500, respectively (the same thresholds at which the wage limit phases in).
The QBI deduction applies to taxable income and doesn’t come into play when computing adjusted gross income (AGI). It’s available to taxpayers who itemize deductions, as well as those who don’t itemize, and to those paying the alternative minimum tax.
Rental real estate owners
One of the lingering questions related to the QBI deduction was whether it was available for owners of rental real estate. The latest guidance (found in IRS Notice 2019-07) includes a proposed safe harbor that allows certain real estate enterprises to qualify as a business for purposes of the deduction. Taxpayers can rely on the safe harbor until a final rule is issued.
Generally, individuals and entities that own rental real estate directly or through disregarded entities (entities that aren’t considered separate from their owners for income tax purposes, such as single-member LLCs) can claim the deduction if:
The 250 hours of services may be performed by owners, employees or contractors. Time spent on maintenance, repairs, rent collection, expense payment, provision of services to tenants and rental efforts counts toward the 250 hours. Investment-related activities, such as arranging financing, procuring property and reviewing financial statements, do not.
Be aware that rental real estate used by a taxpayer as a residence for any part of the year isn’t eligible for the safe harbor.
This safe harbor also isn’t available for property leased under a triple net lease that requires the tenant to pay all or some of the real estate taxes, maintenance, and building insurance and fees, or for property used by the taxpayer as a residence for any part of the year.
Aggregation of multiple businesses
It’s not unusual for small business owners to operate more than one business. The proposed regs include rules allowing an individual to aggregate multiple businesses that are owned and operated as part of a larger, integrated business for purposes of the W-2 wages and UBIA of qualified property limitations, thereby maximizing the deduction. The final regs retain these rules with some modifications.
For example, the proposed rules allow a taxpayer to aggregate trades or businesses based on a 50% ownership test, which must be maintained for a majority of the taxable year. The final regulations clarify that the majority of the taxable year must include the last day of the taxable year.
The final regs also allow a “relevant pass-through entity” — such as a partnership or S corporation — to aggregate businesses it operates directly or through lower-tier pass-through entities to calculate its QBI deduction, assuming it meets the ownership test and other tests. (The proposed regs allow these entities to aggregate only at the individual-owner level.) Where aggregation is chosen, the entity and its owners must report the combined QBI, wages and UBIA of qualified property figures.
A taxpayer who doesn’t aggregate in one year can still choose to do so in a future year. Once aggregation is chosen, though, the taxpayer must continue to aggregate in future years unless there’s a significant change in circumstances.
The final regs generally don’t allow an initial aggregation of businesses to be done on an amended return, but the IRS recognizes that many taxpayers may be unaware of the aggregation rules when filing their 2018 tax returns. Therefore, it will permit taxpayers to make initial aggregations on amended returns for 2018.
UBIA in qualified property
The final regs also make some changes regarding the determination of UBIA in qualified property. The proposed regs adjust UBIA for nonrecognition transactions (where the entity doesn’t recognize a gain or loss on a contribution in exchange for an interest or share), like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.
Under the final regs, UBIA of qualified property generally remains unadjusted as a result of these transactions. Property contributed to a partnership or S corporation in a nonrecognition transaction usually will retain its UBIA on the date it was first placed in service by the contributing partner or shareholder. The UBIA of property received in a like-kind exchange is generally the same as the UBIA of the relinquished property. The same rule applies for property acquired as part of an involuntary conversion.
Many of the comments the IRS received after publishing the proposed regs sought further guidance on whether specific types of businesses are SSTBs. The IRS, however, found such analysis beyond the scope of the new guidance. It pointed out that the determination of whether a particular business is an SSTB often depends on its individual facts and circumstances.
Nonetheless, the IRS did establish rules regarding certain kinds of businesses. For example, it states that veterinarians provide health services (which means that they’re subject to the SSTB limits), but real estate and insurance agents and brokers don’t provide brokerage services (so they aren’t subject to the limits).
The final regs retain the proposed rule limiting the meaning of the “reputation or skill” clause, also known as the “catch-all.” The clause applies only to cases where an individual or a relevant pass-through entity is engaged in the business of receiving income from endorsements, the licensing of an individual’s likeness or features, or appearance fees.
The IRS also uses the final regs to put a lid on the so-called “crack and pack” strategy, which has been floated as a way to minimize the negative impact of the SSTB limit. The strategy would have allowed entities to split their non-SSTB components into separate entities that charged the SSTBs fees.
The proposed regs generally treat a business that provides more than 80% of its property or services to an SSTB as an SSTB if the businesses share more than 50% common ownership. The final regs eliminate the 80% rule. As a result, when a business provides property or services to an STTB with 50% or more common ownership, the portion of that business providing property or services to the SSTB will be treated as a separate SSTB.
The final regs also remove the “incidental to an SSTB” rule. The proposed rule requires businesses with at least 50% common ownership and shared expenses with an SSTB to be considered part of the same business for purposes of the deduction if the business’s gross receipts represent 5% or less of the total combined receipts of the business and the SSTB.
Note, though, that businesses with some income that qualifies for the deduction and some that doesn’t can still separate the different activities by keeping separate books to claim the deduction on the eligible income. For example, banking activities (taking deposits, making loans) qualify for the deduction, but wealth management and similar advisory services don’t, so a financial services business could separate the bookkeeping for these functions and claim the deduction on the qualifying income.
The TCJA allows individuals a deduction of up to 20% of their combined qualified real estate investment trust (REIT) dividends and qualified publicly traded partnership (PTP) income, including dividends and income earned through pass-through entities. The new guidance clarifies that shareholders of mutual funds with REIT investments can apply the deduction. The IRS is still considering whether PTP investments held via mutual funds qualify.
Proceed with caution
The tax code imposes a penalty for underpayments of income tax that exceed the greater of 10% of the correct amount of tax or $5,000. But the TCJA leaves less room for error by taxpayers claiming the QBI deduction: It lowers the threshold for the underpayment penalty for such taxpayers to 5%. We can help you avoid such penalties and answer all of your questions regarding the QBI deduction.
The IRS has some good news for certain taxpayers — it’s waiving underpayment penalties for those whose 2018 federal income tax withholding and estimated tax payments came in under their actual tax liabilities for the year. The waiver recognizes that the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act’s (TCJA’s) overhaul of the federal income tax regime made it difficult for some taxpayers to determine the proper amount to have withheld from their paychecks or include in their quarterly estimated tax payments for 2018.
The new tax system
Many taxpayers started seeing more money in their paychecks in February 2018, after their employers made adjustments based on the IRS’s updated withholding tables. The revised tables reflected the TCJA’s increase in the standard deduction, suspension of personal exemptions, and changes in tax rates and brackets.
The TCJA roughly doubles the 2017 standard deduction amounts to $12,000 for single filers and $24,000 for joint filers in 2018. It also eliminates personal exemptions, which taxpayers previously could claim for themselves, their spouses and any dependents. In addition, it adjusts the taxable income thresholds and tax rates for the seven income tax brackets.
But, as the IRS cautioned when it released the revised withholding tables, some taxpayers could find themselves hit with larger income tax bills for 2018 than they faced in the past. This is because of some of the changes described above, as well as the reduction or elimination of many popular tax deductions. The tables didn’t account for the reduced availability of itemized deductions (or the suspension of personal exemptions).
For example, taxpayers who itemize can deduct no more than $10,000 for the aggregate of their state and local property taxes and income or sales taxes. Itemizing taxpayers also can deduct mortgage interest only on debt of $750,000 ($1 million for mortgage debt incurred on or before December 15, 2017) and can’t deduct interest on some home equity debt.
The higher standard deduction and expansion of family tax credits may offset the loss of some deductions and the personal exemptions. Indeed, the IRS predicts that most 2018 tax filers will receive refunds.
Taxpayers, however, generally can’t be certain how the numerous TCJA changes will play out for them, putting them at risk of underpayment penalties for 2018. The Government Accountability Office last year estimated that almost 30 million taxpayers will owe money when they file their 2018 personal income tax returns due to underwithholding. Those particularly at risk include taxpayers who itemized in the past but are now taking the standard deduction, two-wage-earner households, employees with nonwage sources of income and taxpayers with complex tax situations.
The tax code imposes a penalty (known as a Section 6654 penalty) if taxpayers don’t pay enough in taxes during the year. The penalty generally doesn’t apply if a person’s tax payments were:
Taxpayers generally can also avoid the underpayment penalty if they owe less than $1,000 in additional tax after subtracting their withholding and refundable credits.
The 2018 waiver
The IRS’s waiver lowers the 90% threshold to 85% — the IRS won’t penalize taxpayers who paid at least 85% of their total 2018 tax liability. For those who paid less than 85%, the IRS will calculate the penalty as it normally would.
To request the waiver, a taxpayer must file Form 2210, “Underpayment of Estimated Tax by Individuals, Estates, and Trusts,” with his or her 2018 federal income tax return.
The IRS already has indicated that it will issue refunds despite the government shutdown that has furloughed about 800,000 federal workers. The IRS is recalling some of its furloughed employees and plans to have about 46,000 of its employees back on the job in the coming days. Those employees represent only about 57% of its total workforce. These employees will be using newly updated systems and forms, which could result in further delays. In addition, they could face an onslaught of questions from taxpayers confused by the TCJA changes.
Moreover, the recalled employees won’t be paid during the shutdown, and declines in morale may hurt productivity. Unpaid workers at other federal agencies have called in sick at higher rates than usual since the government’s partial closure, and the union that represents IRS employees has sued the Trump administration over the pay issue.
Act now for 2019 taxes
The underpayment penalty waiver is effective only for 2018. The IRS is urging taxpayers to review their withholding now to ensure that the proper amount is withheld for 2019, especially taxpayers who end up owing more than expected this year. If you have questions regarding the waiver, please don’t hesitate to call us.
Now that 2019 has begun, there isn’t too much you can do to reduce your 2018 income tax liability. But it’s smart to begin preparing for filing your 2018 return. Because the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), which was signed into law at the end of 2017, likely will have a major impact on your 2018 taxes, it’s a good time to review the most significant provisions impacting individual taxpayers.
Rates and exemptions
Generally, taxpayers will be subject to lower tax rates for 2018. But a couple of rates stay the same, and changes to some of the brackets for certain types of filers (individuals and heads of households) could cause them to be subject to higher rates. Some exemptions are eliminated, while others increase. Here are some of the specific changes:
Drops of individual income tax rates ranging from 0 to 4 percentage points (depending on the bracket) to 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% and 37%
Elimination of personal and dependent exemptions
AMT exemption increase, to $109,400 for joint filers, $70,300 for singles and heads of households, and $54,700 for separate filers for 2018
Approximate doubling of the gift and estate tax exemption, to $11.18 million for 2018
Credits and deductions
Generally, tax breaks are reduced for 2018. However, a few are enhanced. Here’s a closer look:
Doubling of the child tax credit to $2,000 and other modifications intended to help more taxpayers benefit from the credit
Near doubling of the standard deduction, to $24,000 (married couples filing jointly), $18,000 (heads of households) and $12,000 (singles and married couples filing separately) for 2018
Reduction of the adjusted gross income (AGI) threshold for the medical expense deduction to 7.5% for regular and AMT purposes
New $10,000 limit on the deduction for state and local taxes (on a combined basis for property and income or sales taxes; $5,000 for separate filers)
Reduction of the mortgage debt limit for the home mortgage interest deduction to $750,000 ($375,000 for separate filers), with certain exceptions
Elimination of the deduction for interest on home equity debt
Elimination of the personal casualty and theft loss deduction (with an exception for federally declared disasters)
Elimination of miscellaneous itemized deductions subject to the 2% floor (such as certain investment expenses, professional fees and unreimbursed employee business expenses)
Elimination of the AGI-based reduction of certain itemized deductions
Elimination of the moving expense deduction (with an exception for members of the military in certain circumstances)
Expansion of tax-free Section 529 plan distributions to include those used to pay qualifying elementary and secondary school expenses, up to $10,000 per student per tax year
How are you affected?
As you can see, the TCJA changes for individuals are dramatic. Many rules and limits apply, so contact us to find out exactly how you’re affected. We can also tell you if any other provisions affect you, and help you begin preparing for your 2018 tax return filing and 2019 tax planning.
The dawning of 2019 means the 2018 income tax filing season will soon be upon us. After year end, it’s generally too late to take action to reduce 2018 taxes. Business owners may, therefore, want to shift their focus to assessing whether they’ll likely owe taxes or get a refund when they file their returns this spring, so they can plan accordingly.
With the biggest tax law changes in decades — under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) — generally going into effect beginning in 2018, most businesses and their owners will be significantly impacted. So, refreshing yourself on the major changes is a good idea.
Taxation of pass-through entities
These changes generally affect owners of S corporations, partnerships and limited liability companies (LLCs) treated as partnerships, as well as sole proprietors:
Drops of individual income tax rates ranging from 0 to 4 percentage points (depending on the bracket) to 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, 35% and 37%
A new 20% qualified business income deduction for eligible owners (the Section 199A deduction)
Changes to many other tax breaks for individuals that will impact owners’ overall tax liability
Taxation of corporations
These changes generally affect C corporations, personal service corporations (PSCs) and LLCs treated as C corporations:
Replacement of graduated corporate rates ranging from 15% to 35% with a flat corporate rate of 21%
Replacement of the flat PSC rate of 35% with a flat rate of 21%
Repeal of the 20% corporate alternative minimum tax (AMT)
Tax break positives
These changes generally apply to both pass-through entities and corporations:
Doubling of bonus depreciation to 100% and expansion of qualified assets to include used assets
Doubling of the Section 179 expensing limit to $1 million and an increase of the expensing phaseout threshold to $2.5 million
A new tax credit for employer-paid family and medical leave
Tax break negatives
These changes generally also apply to both pass-through entities and corporations:
A new disallowance of deductions for net interest expense in excess of 30% of the business’s adjusted taxable income (exceptions apply)
New limits on net operating loss (NOL) deductions
Elimination of the Section 199 deduction (not to be confused with the new Sec.199A deduction), which was for qualified domestic production activities and commonly referred to as the “manufacturers’ deduction”
A new rule limiting like-kind exchanges to real property that is not held primarily for sale (generally no more like-kind exchanges for personal property)
New limitations on deductions for certain employee fringe benefits, such as entertainment and, in certain circumstances, meals and transportation
Preparing for 2018 filing
Keep in mind that additional rules and limits apply to the rates and breaks covered here. Also, these are only some of the most significant and widely applicable TCJA changes; you and your business could be affected by other changes as well. Contact us to learn precisely how you might be affected and for help preparing for your 2018 tax return filing — and beginning to plan for 2019, too.
In April 2018, the IRS released temporary guidance on the amended limit on deductions for business interest expense for tax years beginning in 2018. Taxpayers were allowed to rely on that guidance while waiting for regulations. The IRS has now published proposed regulations that taxpayers can rely on until final regs are released.
The proposed regs significantly expand on the temporary guidance. They include, among other notable provisions, a broader definition of interest than businesses have applied in the past.
The deduction limit — then and now
Before the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was enacted, corporations were prohibited from deducting “disqualified interest” expense. This occurred when the borrower’s debt equaled more than one and one-half times its equity and net interest expenses exceeded 50% of its adjusted taxable income (ATI), as computed without regard to deductions for net interest expense, net operating losses, domestic production activities, depreciation, amortization and depletion.
Taxpayers could carry forward excess interest (meaning any interest that couldn’t be deducted due to the 50% of ATI limit) indefinitely. Any excess limit (the excess of 50% of the borrower’s ATI over its net interest expense) could be carried forward for three years.
For tax years beginning after 2017, the TCJA amended Section 163(j) of the Internal Revenue Code to limit the deduction for business interest incurred by both corporate and noncorporate taxpayers to the sum of:
The limit applies to all taxpayers with business interest expense, except those with average annual gross receipts of $25 million or less (adjusted annually for inflation); real estate or farming businesses that elect to exempt themselves; certain regulated utilities; and certain trades or businesses, including those performing services as an employee.
The amended rules allow for the indefinite carryforward of any business interest not deducted because of the limit. With limited exceptions, taxpayers can’t carry forward “excess” limit amounts to years beginning after December 31, 2017.
The new definition of “interest”
The proposed regs define “interest” as “any amount paid or accrued as compensation for the use or forbearance of money under the terms of an instrument or contractual arrangement, including a series of transactions.” The definition also includes amounts treated as interest under other tax code provisions or tax regs (for example, original issue discounts and accrued market discounts).
The far-reaching definition encompasses interest on conventional debt instruments as well as interest associated with transactions that are debt in substance, if not in form. The definition includes as interest certain amounts that are closely related to interest and affect the economic yield or cost of funds in a transaction involving interest, regardless of whether the amounts are compensation for the use or forbearance of money on a standalone basis. Examples include substitute interest payments, certain debt issuance costs and certain commitment fees.
The proposed regs also include an antiavoidance rule to prevent transactions that are essentially financing transactions from avoiding the limit. It treats as interest expense any expense or loss predominantly incurred based on the time value of money when a taxpayer secures the use of funds for a period of time. Amounts associated with time-value components that weren’t previously treated as interest now would be deemed interest. A swap transaction with significant nonperiodic payments, for instance, would be treated as two separate transactions — an on-market, level payment swap and a loan.
The IRS acknowledges that, in some cases, certain items could be tested under the business interest limit that aren’t treated as interest under other tax law provisions. For example, an amount that was previously fully deductible as a business expense under Section 162 could now be tested as a business interest expense subject to limitation.
This likely will make it more difficult to negotiate financing deals with lenders that are structured to increase the borrower’s deductible costs and reduce its costs subject to limit. For example, in the past, a business might negotiate a lower interest rate in exchange for a higher loan commitment fee that it could fully deduct. Now, however, that fee could be considered interest expense. The impact will, of course, be greater as a company takes on more debt or interest rates edge higher.
Computation of ATI
ATI is calculated by computing the taxable income for the year as if all business interest expense is deductible and applying certain adjustments, as either additions or subtractions. The proposed regs include both the adjustments already specified in Sec. 163(j) and several additional adjustments not provided in the tax provision.
Sec. 163(j) requires adjustments for:
The IRS has added adjustments to prevent double counting and other distortions. For example, the proposed regs require the addition of capital loss carrybacks or carryovers.
Allocation of expense and income to excepted businesses
The proposed regs include rules for determining the amount of a taxpayer’s interest expense and income that should be allocated to a business that’s subject to the business interest deduction limit when the taxpayer also is engaged in an “excepted” business that isn’t.
The taxpayer generally must compare its basis in the assets used in the included business with its basis in the assets used in the excepted business to determine the portion that should be allocated. Several exceptions and special rules apply, including rules related to allocation among members of a consolidated group.
Much to ponder
The proposed regs address a range of additional issues, including the application of the rules to consolidated groups, partnerships and partners, S corporations, and controlled foreign corporations. We can help you understand the proposed regs and how they might affect your business.
Prepaying property taxes related to the current year but due the following year has long been one of the most popular and effective year-end tax-planning strategies. But does it still make sense in 2018?
The answer, for some people, is yes — accelerating this expense will increase their itemized deductions, reducing their tax bills. But for many, particularly those in high-tax states, changes made by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) eliminate the benefits.
The TCJA made two changes that affect the viability of this strategy. First, it nearly doubled the standard deduction to $24,000 for married couples filing jointly, $18,000 for heads of household, and $12,000 for singles and married couples filing separately, so fewer taxpayers will itemize. Second, it placed a $10,000 cap on state and local tax (SALT) deductions, including property taxes plus income or sales taxes.
For property tax prepayment to make sense, two things must happen:
1. You must itemize (that is, your itemized deductions must exceed the standard deduction), and
2. Your other SALT expenses for the year must be less than $10,000.
If you don’t itemize, or you’ve already used up your $10,000 limit (on income or sales taxes or on previous property tax installments), accelerating your next property tax installment will provide no benefit.
Joe and Mary, a married couple filing jointly, have incurred $5,000 in state income taxes, $5,000 in property taxes, $18,000 in qualified mortgage interest, and $4,000 in charitable donations, for itemized deductions totaling $32,000. Their next installment of 2018 property taxes, $5,000, is due in the spring of 2019. They’ve already reached the $10,000 SALT limit, so prepaying property taxes won’t reduce their tax bill.
Now suppose they live in a state with no income tax. In that case, prepayment would potentially make sense because it would be within the SALT limit and would increase their 2018 itemized deductions.
Look before you leap
Before you prepay property taxes, review your situation carefully to be sure it will provide a tax benefit. And keep in mind that, just because prepayment will increase your 2018 itemized deductions, it doesn’t necessarily mean that’s the best strategy. For example, if you expect to be in a higher tax bracket in 2019, paying property taxes when due will likely produce a greater benefit over the two-year period.
For help determining whether prepaying property taxes makes sense for you this year, contact us. We can also suggest other year-end tips for reducing your taxes.
Under the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), many more businesses are now eligible to use the cash method of accounting for federal tax purposes. The cash method offers greater tax-planning flexibility, allowing some businesses to defer taxable income. Newly eligible businesses should determine whether the cash method would be advantageous and, if so, consider switching methods.
Previously, the cash method was unavailable to certain businesses, including:
In addition, construction companies whose average annual gross receipts for the previous three tax years exceeded $10 million were required to use the percentage-of-completion method (PCM) to account for taxable income from long-term contracts (except for certain home construction contracts). Generally, the PCM method is less favorable, from a tax perspective, than the completed-contract method.
The TCJA raised all of these thresholds to $25 million, beginning with the 2018 tax year. In other words, if your business’s average gross receipts for the previous three tax years is $25 million or less, you generally now will be eligible for the cash method, regardless of how your business is structured, your industry or whether you have inventories. And construction firms under the threshold need not use PCM for jobs expected to be completed within two years.
You’re also eligible for streamlined inventory accounting rules. And you’re exempt from the complex uniform capitalization rules, which require certain expenses to be capitalized as inventory costs.
Should you switch?
If you’re eligible to switch to the cash method, you need to determine whether it’s the right method for you. Usually, if a business’s receivables exceed its payables, the cash method will allow more income to be deferred than will the accrual method. (Note, however, that the TCJA has a provision that limits the cash method’s advantages for businesses that prepare audited financial statements or file their financial statements with certain government entities.) It’s also important to consider the costs of switching, which may include maintaining two sets of books.
The IRS has established procedures for obtaining automatic consent to such a change, beginning with the 2018 tax year, by filing Form 3115 with your tax return. Contact us to learn more.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) created more than 100 new tax provisions — a staggering thought as you begin to prepare for the next filing season. The good news is that these and some of the surviving provisions create a wealth of year-end planning opportunities.
Choose the right approach to deductions
Many taxpayers who’ve traditionally itemized their deductions might end up simply claiming the standard deduction for 2018. The TCJA roughly doubles the standard deduction to $12,000 for single filers and $24,000 for married couples. It also suspends personal exemptions and eliminates or limits many of the popular itemized deductions.
The deduction for state and local income and sales taxes, for example, is limited to $10,000 for the aggregate of state and local property taxes and income or sales taxes. This could make it difficult to claim enough in itemized deductions to surpass the standard deduction.
The choice between taking the standard deduction or itemizing will depend on your individual circumstances. Factors such as the amount of medical expenses could also play a role in the decision.
Time medical expenses
The TCJA gives taxpayers with substantial upcoming medical expenses strong incentive to incur them this year. The law lowered the threshold for deducting unreimbursed medical expenses from 10% of adjusted gross income (AGI) to 7.5% for all taxpayers in 2017 and 2018. Next year, though, the threshold returns to 10%, making it harder to qualify for the deduction.
Qualified medical expenses are broadly defined as the costs of diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease and the costs for treatments affecting any part or function of the body. Examples include payments to physicians, dentists and other medical practitioners, as well as equipment (including glasses, contacts and hearing aids), supplies, diagnostic devices and prescription drugs. Travel expenses related to medical care are also deductible.
Offset capital gains
The strategy of “loss harvesting” to shield gains from the capital gains tax remains advisable for 2018, particularly for high-income taxpayers. It involves selling underperforming investments to realize losses that can offset taxable gains realized during the year. As a bonus, if the losses exceed gains, up to $3,000 of the excess losses generally can be used to offset ordinary income, which is taxed at a higher rate than capital gains. And any excess beyond that is carried forward.
You might also consider selling depreciated assets and contributing the proceeds to charity. The loss can be harvested (assuming the asset has been held for more than one year); plus, you’ll receive a charitable contribution deduction for the cash donation.
Employees have limited options for deferring wages and salaries, but if you’re self-employed you can push income into 2019 by, for example, delaying invoices until late December so payment doesn’t arrive until January.
Regardless of your employment situation, you can also defer income by taking capital gains next year. A caveat, though — deferring income is wise only if you expect to be in the same or a lower tax bracket in 2019. If not, the taxes will be greater next year than this year.
Bunch charitable contributions
You can claim deductions for charitable contributions only if you itemize the deductions. For that reason, it’s been estimated that the number of households claiming charitable deductions will decline under the new tax law. But those with philanthropic inclinations can reap tax benefits by donating strategically.
For example, if you contribute to a donor-advised fund (DAF), you can get an immediate tax deduction. By making multiple contributions to a DAF in a single year, you can get past the standard deduction threshold and take an itemized deduction. You can direct the fund administrator to distribute the funds annually in equal increments, so your favorite charities receive a steady stream of donations regardless of whether you itemize every year. And contributing appreciated assets to a DAF (or directly to a charity) can help avoid long-term capital gains taxes (subject to certain limitations) in addition to securing a deduction for the assets’ fair market value.
If you’re not using a DAF, you can take a similar “bunching” approach to your donations to accumulate enough charitable itemized deductions to push them over the standard deduction for some years. For example, if you typically contribute to a nonprofit at the end of the year, you can instead bunch donations in alternative years (January and December of 2019 and January and December of 2021). Or you can make several years’ worth of donations in one year. You give the same aggregate amounts as in the past and preserve the charitable deduction.
Deduction acceleration has the same goal as charitable contribution bunching: boosting the amount of deductions over the standard deduction to make itemizing worthwhile and increase the total write-off. You could accelerate deductions by prepaying state income tax or property tax bills for 2019 before year end. (Of course, this could bring the total state and local tax deduction over the $10,000 limit, meaning the sacrifice of the excess portion for tax purposes.)
However, if you’re in danger of falling prey to the alternative minimum tax (AMT), think twice before pursuing this strategy. Certain deductions allowed for the regular income tax — including those for state and local taxes — aren’t allowed for AMT purposes.
Contribute to retirement accounts
As in previous years, you can shrink your taxes by adding to tax-deferred retirement accounts. Consider the benefit of making allowable contributions to your IRAs and 401(k) plans. Also, keep in mind that, because the deadline for certain retirement account contributions is after the end of the year, there may be an opportunity for tax planning into the new year.
There’s still time
There’s much to consider under the new tax law, but one thing is certain: It’s not too late to take advantage of year-end tax planning opportunities. Turn to us for help in determining the right strategies for your situation.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was packed with goodies for businesses, but it also seemed to eliminate the popular meal expense deduction in some situations. Now, the IRS has issued transitional guidance — while it works on proposed regulations — that confirms the deduction remains allowable in certain circumstances and clarifies when businesses can claim it.
The need for guidance
Before the TCJA, Section 274 of the Internal Revenue Code generally prohibited deductions for expenses related to entertainment, amusement or recreation (commonly referred to as entertainment expenses). It provided exceptions, though, for entertainment expenses “directly related” to or “associated” with conducting business.
Sec. 274(k) further limited deductions for food and beverage expenses that satisfied one of the exceptions. A deduction was allowed only if 1) the expense wasn’t lavish or extravagant under the circumstances, and 2) the taxpayer (or an employee of the taxpayer) was present when the food or beverages were furnished. Section 274(n)(1) limited the amount of the deduction to 50% of the expense.
The TCJA amends Sec. 274 to disallow a deduction for expenses related to entertainment expenses, regardless of whether they’re directly related to or associated with conducting business. Some taxpayers interpreted the amendment to ban deductions for business meal expenses as though they were deemed to be entertainment expenses. According to the new guidance, though, the law doesn’t specifically eliminate all of these expenses.
Rather, the law merely repeals the two exceptions and amends the 50% limitation to remove the reference to entertainment expenses. The TCJA doesn’t address the circumstances in which providing food and beverages might constitute nondeductible entertainment, the IRS says, but its legislative history “clarifies that taxpayers generally may continue to deduct 50% of the food and beverage expenses associated with operating their trade or business.”
Until the IRS publishes its proposed regulations explaining when business meal expenses are nondeductible entertainment expenses and when they’re 50% deductible expenses, businesses may deduct 50% of business meal amounts if:
The IRS recognized that the fifth criterion above could create some confusion. The guidance, therefore, includes illustrative examples.
In the first example, a taxpayer invites a business contact to a baseball game, paying for both tickets. While at the game, the taxpayer also pays for hot dogs and drinks. The game is entertainment, so the cost of the tickets is a nondeductible entertainment expense. However, the cost of the hot dogs and drinks, purchased separately from the tickets, isn’t an entertainment expense. Therefore, the taxpayer can deduct 50% of the cost as a meal expense.
The second example employs a similar scenario, with the taxpayer inviting a contact to a basketball game. This time, though, the taxpayer buys tickets to watch the game from a suite, with access to food and beverages included. The game again represents entertainment, and the cost of the tickets is nondeductible. The cost of the food and beverages isn’t stated separately on the invoice, rendering it a disallowed entertainment expense, as well.
The final example uses the scenario above, except that the cost of the food and beverages is stated separately on the invoice for the basketball game tickets. The cost of the tickets remains nondeductible, but the taxpayer can deduct 50% of the cost of the food and beverages.
The TCJA doesn’t change the definition of “entertainment.” Under the applicable regulations, the term continues to include, for example, entertaining at:
Entertainment also includes hunting, fishing, vacation and similar trips. It may include providing food and beverages, a hotel suite or an automobile to a customer or the customer’s family.
Be aware that the determination of whether an activity is entertainment considers the taxpayer’s business. For example, a ticket to a play normally would be deemed entertainment. If the taxpayer is a theater critic, however, it wouldn’t. Similarly, a fashion show wouldn’t be considered entertainment if conducted by an apparel manufacturer to introduce its new clothing line to a group of store buyers.
Request for comments
The IRS has requested comments on future guidance clarifying the treatment of business meal expenses and entertainment expenses, including input on whether and what additional guidance is required and the definition of “entertainment.” Businesses should submit comments to the IRS by December 2, 2018. If you have questions on how this guidance may affect your business, please don’t hesitate to call us. We’d be pleased to help.
The recently enacted Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) is a sweeping tax package. There were many gaps in the legislation due to the rush to get it passed. So, there will likely be a technical corrections bill passed by Congress and the IRS will need to issue regulations based on the bill later this year. However, here's a look at some of the more important elements of the new law that have an impact on individuals and businesses. Unless otherwise noted, the changes are effective for tax years beginning in 2018.
Tax Reform Highlights for Individuals
Tax Reform Highlights for Businesses
To understand how these changes may affect your specific tax situation, please call us at 417-881-6919 to set up a meeting with your advisor.